Tuesday, August 17, 2021

Vitamin B Complex: Vitamin B5

Vitamin B5, also called pantothenic acid, belongs to the group of water-soluble B vitamins. Pure pantothenic acid is a viscous, yellow oil. It is stable at neutral pH, but is readily destroyed by acid, alkali, and heat.

Calcium pantothenate, a white, odorless, crystalline substance, is the form of pantothenic acid usually found in commercial vitamin supplements due to its greater stability than the pure acid. Pantothenic acid is an essential nutrient that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement.

It was largely the efforts of research groups associated with R.J. Williams, C.A. Elvehjem, and T.H. Jukes that resulted in the identification of pantothenic acid as an essential dietary factor. Its name originates from the Greek word "pantos", meaning everywhere, as it can be found throughout all living cells.

Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid): Symptoms of deficiency are fatigue, chronic stress, and depression. Vitamin B5 is needed for hormone formation and the uptake of amino acids and the brain chemical acetylcholine, which combine to prevent certain types of depression.

The chemical structure of pantothenic acid consists of pantoic acid and β -alanine bound in amide linkage.

The main function of this water-soluble B vitamin is in the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA) and acyl carrier protein. CoA is essential for fatty acid synthesis and degradation, transfer of acetyl and acyl groups, and a multitude of other anabolic and catabolic processes.

CoA is essential to numerous metabolic pathways that sustain life:
• Synthesis of pantothenic acid cofactors (CoA, 4’-phosphopantetheine)
• Cofactor and co-substrate function (CoA, 4’-phosphopantetheinylation)
• Acyl-carrier protein
• 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase
• α-aminoadipate semialdehyde synthase

Pantothenic acid is naturally present in almost all foods. It is also added to some foods, including some breakfast cereals and beverages (such as energy drinks). Foods that are considered to be exceptionally good dietary sources of pantothenic acid include peanut butter (5-8 mg/100 g), liver (5-7 mg/100 g), kidney (4-6 mg/100 g), peanuts (2-3 mg/100 g), almonds (2-3 mg/100 g), wheat bran (2-3 mg/100 g), cheese (1.5 mg/100 g), and lobster (1.5 mg/100 g).

Pantothenic acid in dietary supplements is often in the form of calcium pantothenate or pantethine.

Refining, freezing, canning and cooking food causes losses of pantothenic acid, so a modern processed food diet would be expected to have lower amounts of vitamin B5 than a whole foods diet.

About 85% of dietary pantothenic acid is in the form of CoA or phosphopantetheine. These forms are converted to pantothenic acid by digestive enzymes (nucleosidases, peptidases, and phosphorylases) in the intestinal lumen and intestinal cells. Pantothenic acid is absorbed in the intestine and delivered directly into the bloodstream by active transport.
Vitamin B Complex: Vitamin B5

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